Main Article Content
Smart Grid is a modernized grid to maintain a reliable and secure transmission and distribution of electricity. It is laced with use of information communication technology (ICT) and advanced control mechanisms with full cyber-security aimed at improving reliability, security, and efficiency of the electric grid. In a traditional electric grid electricity transfer is from grid to consumer, while in the new smart grid the energy flow is bidirectional because of the integration of renewable energy sources like photo voltaic, wind, fuel cell, bio gas, geothermal and so on. Consumers are also producer of electricity which is going to change the economics of electricity sector: buyers are now sellers. The changed topology of electric power network demands deployment of ?smart technologies that are automated and interactive for metering, communications concerning grid operations and automation. Use of ?smart' appliances, consumer devices and integration of advanced electricity storage and peak-shaving technologies, including plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles requires provision of timely information and control options. Fast system response resulting from integration of renewables, advanced power convertors, smart appliances etc. demands a stat of art technology for the protection of smart grid.